Turkey is officially known as the Republic of Turkey and
it came into existence in 1923 through the efforts of its founder, Musafa
Ataturk. The country is in the transition between Europe and
Asia, traditionally determined by the Bosphorus, which joins the
Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean. It has borders with
Bulgaria, Greeece, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, Iraq and
Syria. Istanbul occupies the small European section of the country
north of the Bosphorus.
Turkey has a populuation in excess of 70 million and the
official language is Turkisk. In the past the region was ruled by the Byantines, the Romans
and subsequently the Ottomans. The transition from Christianity to
Muslim is apparent in its architecture and most of the population is now
Muslim. The Kurds occupy the border areas with Iraq and have
experienced long struggles for independence.
Turkey has complex lists of citizens who are exempt from
visa requirements. For a list of countries requiring a travel visa, visit the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs web site or check your specific country at
For a list of exempt countries, visit Project
Visa. For those requiring a visa, the Turkish government now provides an online eVisa
at a reasonable price. The visa on arrival system was phased out in
2014. Ocean cruise lines generally handle visa arrangement for their
passengers visiting ports of call, such as Istanbul.
The currency used in Turkey is the Turkish lira (TRY).